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Citation Assistance Resource Guide: Chicago-17 Citation Style

The Chicago Style, or Turabian, citation format is just one of the many ways to cite information. Created by the Chicago University Press, there are two main varieties of the citation style: the Notes and Bibliography style, and the Author-Date style. Which variation you use will depend on the field you are studying. The Notes and Bibliography variation of Chicago Style is most often used by humanities fields such as history, literature, and the arts. The Author-Date variation is more common in the sciences and social sciences. 

This guide will only outline the basics of the Notes and Bibliography format, as well as provide you tips for creating your bibliography page. Also make sure to check out the Additional Resources list below to find useful online tools.  

Notes and Bibliography | In-Text Examples | End/Footnote Example | Shortened Note Example | Bibliography Entries | Source Type Examples

Additional Resources

Notes and Bibliography

The Notes and Bibliography format uses footnotes or endnotes as well as a bibliography of sources. The sources you cite are marked in your text using a superscript number, which corresponds to a footnote at the end of the page, or an endnote listed at the end of the paper that shows the citation information. Your paper will either use footnotes, or endnotes, but not both together. Make sure to check with your instructor whether they want you to use footnotes or endnotes for your assignments.  Then at the end of the paper, a complete list of all your sources is included in a bibliography.

When creating your footnotes or endnotes, there are some basic rules that you will apply and will be outlined in this guide. The first foot/endnote you use for a specific source should always include the full citation information. Any following foot/endnotes for the exact same source can use a shortened version, as illustrated below. 

In-Text Example:

As quoted in Swing Time, “Nostalgia is a luxury.”1

Notice that the superscript #1 appears at the end of the sentence, directly following the information that it is citing. This points readers to the corresponding note to find the citation information. 

End/Footnote Example:

1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Shortened Note Example:

When you are citing one source multiple times in a paper, you can use a shortened version of the note to help save space. These shortened versions can be used after you have already used the full citation in a previous note. 

3. Smith, Swing Time, 320.

4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

Bibliography Entries:

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

Notice the bibliography entries are in alphabetical order, unlike when they are listed in the footnotes, when they are listed as they appear in the paper. 

Also take note that the entries in the bibliography have a slightly different format than the endnote entries, such as different comma/period usage. 


Example Notes for Different Source Types

For more examples not listed here, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style Website


Full Note

1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Shortened Note

3. Smith, Swing Time, 320.

4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.


Full Note

1. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627,

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19,

Shortened Note

3. Melville, Moby-Dick, 722–23.

4. Kurland and Lerner, Founders’ Constitution, chap. 4, doc. 29.

Journal Articles

Full Note

1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.

2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10,

Shortened Note

3. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.

4. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.


Full Note

1. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017,

2. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51,

Shortened Note

3. “Yale Facts.”

4. Bouman, “Black Hole.”

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